Blumstein, A. (1993). Racial dispropotionality of US prison population revisited. University of Colorado Law Review 64 (3). In this article, Blumstein updates a earlier study he had carried out in 1983 that exposed the high racial dispropotionality in US prisons. He shows that more than 80% of the total arrest could be attributed to differential arrests for crimes like murder or violent robbery that leads to imprisonment. In the current study, he shows that about 94% of racial dispropotionality in prison could be accounted to drugs. Further he showed that black Americans accounted for 58% of all incarcerated drug offenders but only 40% of the total arrestees for drug related offenses. This sources was important for this study as it shows the depth of racial dispropotionality in US prisons.
Bridgeres, G., Curtchfied, R.
& Simpson, E. (1997). Crime, social structure, and criminal punishment: White and non white rates of imprisonment. Social Problems 34, (4) In this study, Bridge et al., explores the aspect of crime, social, structure and criminal justice system. They explain the differential rates of incarceration between whites and non whites. For social structure, they take a state by state approach calculating the level of economic inequality between whites and non whites and relate this to rate of incarceration. This was an important source for the study as it mapped out the racial dispropotionality of incarceration in each state.
Butler, P. (1997). Affirmative action: Diversity of opinions. University of Colorado Law Review 68(4) In this study, Buttle looks at widespread imprisonment of black community. He also relates this to failure of white policy makers to make us of strategies other than incarceration to address the social problems that are affecting blacks. This source is important in the study as it helps to show the source of increased incarceration of black community to failure by the while policy to address the problems affecting them.
Cole, D. (1995). The paradox of race and crime. Georgetown Law Journal 83, (3). In this journal article, David Cole critiques Randall Kennedy’s position which argues that criminal justice does not discriminate against blacks as a class due to high level of incarceration and that increase incarceration of blacks is for public good. Through showing the extent to which this argument is flawed, Cole helps the reader understand in-depth the issues at play here. This source is important in this study as it bring out the various issues that have contributed to racial incarceration and failure of government policies.
Davis, A. (1998). Prosecution and race: The power and privilege of discretion. Fordham Law Review 68(4) In this article Davis argues that prosecutors, more than other officials in the criminal justice system have the strongest direct impact on racial disparities and therefore they must bear most responsibility in remedying the system. They have control over the charging decision and plea bargaining process which means they are the center of incarceration. This article was important in this study in understanding the importance of prosecutors in ensuring that there is racial equity in the criminal justice system.
Feeley, M. (1979). The process is the punishment – handling cases in lower court. New York: Russel-Sage Foundation. In this book, the author looks at criminal justice in the realm of punishment. Through review of the working system of the lower courts, the study shows that criminal justice system has been geared towards punishing offenders rather than rehabilitating them. Through the critique of the criminal justice system as administered in the lower courts, this study was one of the most important source for this study.
Frase, R. (1997). Sentencing principles in theory and practice. Crime & Justice: A Review of Research 22: 363-433 In this journal article the author looks at the principle foundation of criminal justice. The author looks into criminal justice system in theory and practice looking at principles in which sentencing is based on. This source is important in helping the reader understand the basic principles of theory and practice of sentencing.
Frase, R. (2001). Sentencing in German and the United States: Comparing Apfels with apples. Freingburg, Germany: Marx Plunck Institute of Foreign and International Criminal Law. In this publication, Frase compares the rate of sentencing in United States and Germany. In his review, Frase looks at sentencing from all dimensions, including racial and policy dimensions. He shows that the rate of sentencing in United States is higher and biased. This is an important source in study of criminal justice as it helps the reader to understand the geographical differences in sentencing.
Mears, D. & Barnes, J. (2010). Towards systematic foundation for identifying evidence-based criminal justice sanctions and their relative effectiveness. Journal of Criminal Justice 38(4): 702-710. In this article, the authors looks at foundation of evidence based criminal justices sanctions and their effectiveness. The authors discuss the importance of practicing evidence based criminal justices, as has been adopted in the nursing field, but they are also interested in understanding the effectiveness of the system. They show that evidence based criminal justice is likely to have positive results in fighting criminal justice. This source was important in this study as it has distinguished the important role that can be played by practicing evidence-based criminal justice.
Monkkonen, E. (2000). Systematic criminal justice history: Some suggestions. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 92(2) In this article, Monkonnen trace the historical development of criminal justice system. In his review, he shows how criminal justice system has been shaped by different events that have taken place in history. Most important, the author gives some suggestions that need to be adopted to make the system more responsive to community needs. This was as important source for this study as it provided a background understanding of historical development of criminal justice system.
Monroe, F. (1998). Our constitutionalized adversary system. Chapman Law Review 1 (5) 9-56. In this article, Monroe looks at criminal justice system in realm of how it has been adopted to the constitution. Monroe shows that the criminal justice system is meant to enforce laws in adversary system. The strength of this source is that it does not only look at the criminal justice as it is today but it digs into the source and models that have been used to formulate it. With an emphasis on adversarial system, the source shows the foundation of criminal sentencing in the country. This was an important source for this study as it formed the basic understanding of the criminal justice system and how different laws make its practical.
Perri, F. & Lichtenwald, T. (2009). When worlds collide: Criminal investigative analysis. Forensic Examiner 18: 2. In this article, the author looks into the different components of criminal justice system but specially sheds light on forensic examination. The author brings out the important role that is played by forensic examination in the criminal justice system and how forensic examination brings in place evidence based criminal justice. By showing the trends in forensic examination and how it has standards world practice of criminal justice system, the author brings out clear evidence of the interaction between different components of criminal justice system.
Peterson, J., Sommers, I., Baskin, D., & Johnson, D. (2010). Role and impact of forensic evidence in the criminal justice process. Journal of Criminal Justice 32(2): 835-890 In this article, the authors looks into the important role that can be played by forensic examination in criminal justice. In understanding the different aspect and component of criminal justice, the author the author helps us to understand the integration and interdependence between different components of the criminal justice system. By showing the importance role of forensic evidence, this source shows the importance of evidence based criminal justice and how it can help in eliminating erroneous sentencing.
Reaves, B. & Hart, T. (2000). Federal law enforcement officers. Washington: Bureau of Justice Statistics. In this publication, the Bureau of Justice looks into the component of criminal justice system. Specifically, it looks into the roles of federal law enforcement officers in the criminal justice system. Through tracing their roles, this publication shows that every component of the criminal justice system is quite important in ensuring that there is maintenance of public order. This source is important in helping the reader to understand the different roles that are played by federal law enforcement officers.
Walker, S. (1992). Origins of the contemporary criminal justice paradigm: The American Bar Foundation Survey, 1953-1969. Justice Quarterly 9(1). In this article, Walker looks into historical foundation of the current criminal justice paradigm. By digging into the historical development of the system, Walkers helps the reader to understand the theoretical foundation of the current criminal justice paradigm and the steps it has gone through to where it is currently. This is an important source for the study as it helps the reader to understand the
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